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After Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant broke through Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's lines at Petersburg on April 2, 1865, Lee ordered the evacuation of Petersberg and Richmond. the Army of Northern Virginia retreated west on several roads with Grant in pursuit. Lee planned to turn South and join Gen. Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina, but Grant kept part of his force between Lee and his objective. On April 9, surrounded at Appomattox Court House, Lee surrendered.